Skip to main content



AADPA. (2022). ADHD stimulant prescribing regulations & authorities in Australia & New Zealand

Abikoff, H. B., Thompson, M., Laver‐Bradbury, C., Long, N., Forehand, R. L., Miller Brotman, L., . . . Sonuga‐Barke, E. (2015). Parent training for preschool ADHD: a randomized controlled trial of specialized and generic programs. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 56(6), 618-631.

ABS. (2017). 2071.0 – Census of Population and Housing: Reflecting Australia – Stories from the Census, 2016  Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Population.

ADAPTE Collaboration. (2009). The ADAPTE Process. Resource Toolkit for Guideline Adaptation Version 2.0. In: ADAPTE Collaboration.

Adler, L. A., Dirks, B., Deas, P. F., Raychaudhuri, A., Dauphin, M. R., Lasser, R. A., & Weisler, R. H. (2013). Lisdexamfetamine dimesylate in adults with attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder who report clinically significant impairment in executive function: results from a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. J Clin Psychiatry, 74(7), 694-702.

Adler, L. A., Zimmerman, B., Starr, H. L., Silber, S., Palumbo, J., Orman, C., & Spencer, T. (2009). Efficacy and safety of OROS methylphenidate in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel group, dose-escalation study. J Clin Psychopharmacol, 29(3), 239-247.

Aggensteiner, P. M., Brandeis, D., Millenet, S., Hohmann, S., Ruckes, C., Beuth, S., . . . Holtmann, M. (2019). Slow cortical potentials neurofeedback in children with ADHD: comorbidity, self-regulation and clinical outcomes 6 months after treatment in a multicenter randomized controlled trial. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry, 28(8), 1087-1095.

Ahmadi, N., Chaudhry, S., Salam, T., Rodriguez, J., Kase, M., Olango, G., . . . Pynoos, R. (2020). A Randomized Controlled Feasibility Trial of Reminder-Focused Positive Psychiatry in Adolescents With Comorbid Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. Prim Care Companion CNS Disord, 22(5).

Ahmann, E., Tuttle, L. J., Saviet, M., & Wright, S. D. (2018). A descriptive review of ADHD coaching research: Implicatinos for college students. . Journal of Postsecondary Education and Disability, 31, 17-39.

Ahmed, G. M., & Mohamed, S. (2011). Effect of regular aerobic exercises on behavioral, cognitive and psychological response in patients with attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder. Life Sci J, 8(2), 366-371.

Ahmed, R., Borst, J. M., Yong, C. W., & Aslani, P. (2014). Do parents of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) receive adequate information about the disorder and its treatments? A qualitative investigation. Patient Prefer Adherence, 8, 661-670.

Alegria, A. A., Wulff, M., Brinson, H., Barker, G. J., Norman, L. J., Brandeis, D., . . . Rubia, K. (2017). Real-time fMRI neurofeedback in adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Hum Brain Mapp, 38(6), 3190-3209.

Allsop, J., Jones, K., & Baggott, R. (2004). Health consumer groups in the UK: a new social movement? Sociol Health Illn, 26(6), 737-756.

American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders – Fifth Edition. Washington DC: American Psychiatric Association.

Anastopoulos, A. D., Langberg, J. M., Eddy, L. D., Silvia, P. J., & Labban, J. D. (2021). A randomized controlled trial examining CBT for college students with ADHD. J Consult Clin Psychol, 89(1), 21-33.

Andersson, E., McIlduff, C., Turner, K., Thomas, S., Davies, J., Elliott, E. J., & Einfeld, S. (2019). Jandu Yani U ‘For All Families’ Triple P—positive parenting program in remote Australian Aboriginal communities: a study protocol for a community intervention trial. BMJ open, 9(10), e032559.

Appleton, R., Elahi, F., Tuomainen, H., Canaway, A., & Singh, S. P. (2021). “I’m just a long history of people rejecting referrals” experiences of young people who fell through the gap between child and adult mental health services. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry, 30(3), 401-413.

Arabgol, F., Panaghi, L., & Nikzad, V. (2015). Risperidone Versus Methylphenidate in Treatment of Preschool Children With Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Iran J Pediatr, 25(1), e265.

Arnold, L. E., Arns, M., Barterian, J., Bergman, R., Black, S., Conners, C. K., . . . Higgins, T. (2021). Double-blind placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial of neurofeedback for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder with 13-month follow-up. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 60(7), 841-855.

Arnsten, A. F., & Pliszka, S. R. (2011). Catecholamine influences on prefrontal cortical function: relevance to treatment of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and related disorders. Pharmacology, biochemistry, and behavior, 99(2), 211-216.

Asherson, P., Akehurst, R., Kooij, J. S., Huss, M., Beusterien, K., Sasané, R., . . . Hodgkins, P. (2012). Under diagnosis of adult ADHD: cultural influences and societal burden. Journal of Attention Disorders, 16(5_suppl), 20S-38S.

Au, A., Lau, K. M., Wong, A. H. C., Lam, C., Leung, C., Lau, J., & Lee, Y. K. (2014). The efficacy of a Group Triple P (Positive Parenting Program) for Chinese parents with a child diagnosed with ADHD in Hong Kong: A pilot randomised controlled study. Australian Psychologist, 49(3), 151-162.

Azzopardi, P. S., Sawyer, S. M., Carlin, J. B., Degenhardt, L., Brown, N., Brown, A. D., & Patton, G. C. (2018). Health and wellbeing of Indigenous adolescents in Australia: a systematic synthesis of population data. The Lancet, 391(10122), 766-782.

Bachmann, K., Lam, A. P., Soros, P., Kanat, M., Hoxhaj, E., Matthies, S., . . . Philipsen, A. (2018). Effects of mindfulness and psychoeducation on working memory in adult ADHD: A randomised, controlled fMRI study. Behav Res Ther, 106, 47-56.

Baddam, S. K. R., Canapari, C. A., Van de Grift, J., McGirr, C., Nasser, A. Y., & Crowley, M. J. (2021). Screening and Evaluation of Sleep Disturbances and Sleep Disorders in Children and Adolescents. Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am, 30(1), 65-84.

Baggio, S., Bayard, S., Cabelguen, C., Desseilles, M., Gachet, M., Kraemer, C., . . . Sauvaget, A. (2021). Diagnostic Accuracy of the French Version of the Adult Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Self-Report Screening Scale for DSM-5 (ASRS-5). Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 43(2), 367-375.

Baggio, S., Fructuoso, A., Guimaraes, M., Fois, E., Golay, D., Heller, P., . . . Delessert, D. (2018). Prevalence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in detention settings: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Frontiers in psychiatry, 9, 331.

Bai, G. N., Wang, Y. F., Yang, L., & Niu, W. Y. (2015). Effectiveness of a focused, brief psychoeducation program for parents of ADHD children: improvement of medication adherence and symptoms. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat, 11, 2721-2735.

Barth, B., Mayer-Carius, K., Strehl, U., Wyckoff, S. N., Haeussinger, F. B., Fallgatter, A. J., & Ehlis, A.-C. (2021). A randomized-controlled neurofeedback trial in adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Scientific Reports, 11(1), 1-17.

Beheshti, A., Chavanon, M.-L., & Christiansen, H. (2020). Emotion dysregulation in adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a meta-analysis. Bmc Psychiatry, 20(1).

Bell, A., Corfield, M., Davies, J., & Richardson, N. (2010). Collaborative transdisciplinary intervention in early years–putting theory into practice. Child: care, health and development, 36(1), 142-148.

Benzing, V., & Schmidt, M. (2017). Cognitively and physically demanding exergaming to improve executive functions of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a randomised clinical trial. BMC Pediatr, 17(1), 8.

Biederman, J., Mick, E., Spencer, T., Surman, C., & Faraone, S. V. (2012). Is response to OROS-methylphenidate treatment moderated by treatment with antidepressants or psychiatric comorbidity? A secondary analysis from a large randomized double blind study of adults with ADHD. CNS Neurosci Ther, 18(2), 126-132.

Biederman, J., Mick, E., Surman, C., Doyle, R., Hammerness, P., Harpold, T., . . . Spencer, T. (2006). A randomized, placebo-controlled trial of OROS methylphenidate in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Biol Psychiatry, 59(9), 829-835.

Biederman, J., Mick, E., Surman, C., Doyle, R., Hammerness, P., Kotarski, M., & Spencer, T. (2010). A randomized, 3-phase, 34-week, double-blind, long-term efficacy study of osmotic-release oral system-methylphenidate in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. J Clin Psychopharmacol, 30(5), 549-553.

Bikic, A., Christensen, T. O., Leckman, J. F., Bilenberg, N., & Dalsgaard, S. (2017). A double-blind randomized pilot trial comparing computerized cognitive exercises to Tetris in adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Nord J Psychiatry, 71(6), 455-464.

Bikic, A., Leckman, J. F., Christensen, T. O., Bilenberg, N., & Dalsgaard, S. (2018). Attention and executive functions computer training for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): results from a randomized, controlled trial. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry, 27(12), 1563-1574.

Boada, R., Willcutt, E. G., & Pennington, B. F. (2012). Understanding the comorbidity between dyslexia and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Topics in Language Disorders, 32(3), 264-284.

Bogle, A., Rhodes, P., & Hunt, C. (2021). Cultural humility and decolonial practice: narratives of therapists’ lives. Clinical Psychologist, 1-8.

Boland, H., DiSalvo, M., Fried, R., Woodworth, K. Y., Wilens, T., Faraone, S. V., & Biederman, J. (2020). A literature review and meta-analysis on the effects of ADHD medications on functional outcomes. J Psychiatr Res, 123, 21-30.

Bor, W., Sanders, M. R., & Markie-Dadds, C. (2002). The effects of the Triple P-Positive Parenting Program on preschool children with co-occurring disruptive behavior and attentional/hyperactive difficulties. Journal of abnormal child psychology, 30(6), 571-587.

Bradstreet, S., & Pratt, R. (2010). Developing peer support worker roles: Reflecting on experiences in Scotland. . Mental Health and Social Inclusion, 14(3), 36-41.

Brevik, E. J., Lundervold, A. J., Haavik, J., & Posserud, M. B. (2020). Validity and accuracy of the Adult Attention‐Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Self‐Report Scale (ASRS) and the Wender Utah Rating Scale (WURS) symptom checklists in discriminating between adults with and without ADHD. Brain and behavior, 10(6), e01605.

CADDRA. (2018). Canadian ADHD Practice Guidelines. Toronto ON: Canadian ADHD Resource Alliance

Camara, B., Padoin, C., & Bolea, B. (2021). Relationship between sex hormones, reproductive stages and ADHD: a systematic review. Archives of Women’s Mental Health, 1-8.

Canadian ADHD Resource Alliance (CADDRA). (2018). Canadian ADHD Practice Guidelines, Fourth Edition. Toronto ON: CADDRA.

Chacko, A., Wymbs, B. T., Wymbs, F. A., Pelham, W. E., Swanger-Gagne, M. S., Girio, E., . . . Phillips, C. (2009). Enhancing traditional behavioral parent training for single mothers of children with ADHD. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 38(2), 206-218.

Chang, Z., Lichtenstein, P., Langstrom, N., Larsson, H., & Fazel, S. (2016). Association Between Prescription of Major Psychotropic Medications and Violent Reoffending After Prison Release. JAMA, 316(17), 1798-1807.

Cherkasova, M. V., Roy, A., Molina, B. S. G., Scott, G., Weiss, G., Barkley, R. A., . . . Hechtman, L. (2021). Review: Adult Outcome as Seen Through Controlled Prospective Follow-up Studies of Children With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Followed Into Adulthood. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.

Ching, C., Eslick, G. D., & Poulton, A. S. (2019). Evaluation of Methylphenidate Safety and Maximum-Dose Titration Rationale in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Meta-analysis. JAMA Pediatr, 173(7), 630-639.

Christiansen, H., Reh, V., Schmidt, M. H., & Rief, W. (2014). Slow cortical potential neurofeedback and self-management training in outpatient care for children with ADHD: study protocol and first preliminary results of a randomized controlled trial. Front Hum Neurosci, 8, 943.

Christiansen, M. S., Labriola, M., Kirkeskov, L., & Lund, T. (2021). The impact of childhood diagnosed ADHD versus controls without ADHD diagnoses on later labour market attachment-a systematic review of longitudinal studies. Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health, 15(1).

Climie, E. A., & Mastoras, S. M. (2015). ADHD in schools: Adopting a strengths-based perspective. . Canadian Psychology/Psychologie Canadienne, 56(3), 295.

Coghill, D. R. (2017). Organisation of services for managing ADHD. Epidemiol Psychiatr Sci, 26(5), 453-458.

Cortese, S. (2020). Pharmacologic Treatment of Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder. New England Journal of Medicine, 383(11), 1050-1056.

Cortese, S., Adamo, N., Del Giovane, C., Mohr-Jensen, C., Hayes, A. J., Carucci, S., . . . Coghill, D. (2018). Comparative efficacy and tolerability of medications for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in children, adolescents, and adults: a systematic review and network meta-analysis. The Lancet Psychiatry, 5(9), 727-738.

Cortese, S., Aoki, Y. Y., Itahashi, T., Castellanos, F. X., & Eickhoff, S. B. (2021). Systematic Review and Meta-analysis: Resting-State Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Studies of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry, 60(1), 61-75.

Cortese, S., Faraone, S. V., Konofal, E., & Lecendreux, M. (2009). Sleep in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: meta-analysis of subjective and objective studies. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 48(9), 894-908.

Cortese, S., Moreira-Maia, C. R., St Fleur, D., Morcillo-Penalver, C., Rohde, L. A., & Faraone, S. V. (2016). Association Between ADHD and Obesity: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. American journal of psychiatry, 173(1), 34-43.

Cowley, B., Holmstrom, E., Juurmaa, K., Kovarskis, L., & Krause, C. M. (2016). Computer Enabled Neuroplasticity Treatment: A Clinical Trial of a Novel Design for Neurofeedback Therapy in Adult ADHD. Front Hum Neurosci, 10, 205.

Curtis, D. F., Heath, C. L., & Hogan, W. J. (2021). Child skills training for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): A randomized controlled trial of structured dyadic behavior therapy (SDBT). Psychotherapy (Chic), 58(1), 68-80.

Daigre, C., & Ramos-Quiroga, J. A. (2009). Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS-v1. 1) symptom checklist in patients with substance use disorders. Actas Esp Psiquiatr, 37(6), 299-305.

Daley, D., & O’Brien, M. (2013). A small-scale randomized controlled trial of the self-help version of the New Forest Parent Training Programme for children with ADHD symptoms. European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 22(9), 543-552.

Daley, D., Tarver, J., & Sayal, K. (2021). Efficacy of a self‐help parenting intervention for parents of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in adjunct to usual treatment—Small‐scale randomized controlled trial. Child: care, health and development, 47(2), 269-280.

Dalsgaard, S., Østergaard, S. D., Leckman, J. F., Mortensen, P. B., & Pedersen, M. G. (2015). Mortality in children, adolescents, and adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a nationwide cohort study. Lancet, 385(9983), 2190-2196.

Danckaerts, M., Sonuga-Barke, E. J., Banaschewski, T., Buitelaar, J., Dopfner, M., Hollis, C., . . . Coghill, D. (2010). The quality of life of children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a systematic review. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry, 19(2), 83-105.

Davis, C. C., Claudius, M., Palinkas, L. A., Wong, J. B., & Leslie, L. K. (2012). Putting families in the center: Family perspectives on decision making and ADHD and implications for ADHD care. Journal of Attention Disorders, 16(8), 675-684.

Deloitte Access Economics. (2019). The social and economic costs of ADHD in Australia. Retrieved from Canberra:

Demontis, D., Walters, R. K., Martin, J., Mattheisen, M., Als, T. D., Agerbo, E., . . . Neale, B. M. (2019). Discovery of the first genome-wide significant risk loci for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Nat Genet, 51(1), 63-75.

Dentz, A., Guay, M. C., Parent, V., & Romo, L. (2020). Working Memory Training for Adults With ADHD. J Atten Disord, 24(6), 918-927.

Di Lorenzo, R., Balducci, J., Poppi, C., Arcolin, E., Cutino, A., Ferri, P., . . . Filippini, T. (2021). Children and adolescents with ADHD followed up to adulthood: a systematic review of long-term outcomes. Acta neuropsychiatrica, 1-42.

Diaz-Roman, A., Mitchell, R., & Cortese, S. (2018). Sleep in adults with ADHD: Systematic review and meta-analysis of subjective and objective studies. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 89, 61-71.

DiGiacomo, M., Davidson, P. M., Abbott, P., Delaney, P., Dharmendra, T., McGrath, S. J., . . . Vincent, F. (2013). Childhood disability in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples: a literature review. International journal for equity in health, 12(1), 7.

Dittner, A. J., Hodsoll, J., Rimes, K. A., Russell, A. J., & Chalder, T. (2018). Cognitive-behavioural therapy for adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: a proof of concept randomised controlled trial. Acta Psychiatr Scand, 137(2), 125-137.

Dowling, N. A., Cowlishaw, S., Jackson, A. C., Merkouris, S. S., Francis, K. L., & Christensen, D. R. (2015). Prevalence of psychiatric co-morbidity in treatment-seeking problem gamblers: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Australian & New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 49(6), 519-539.

Dudgeon, P., Milroy, H., & Walker, R. (2014). Working together: Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander mental health and wellbeing principles and practice 2nd Edition. ACT: Commonwealth of Australia.

Dunlop, B. W., Wu, R., & Helms, K. (2018). Performance of the adult ADHD Self-Report Scale-v1. 1 in adults with major depressive disorder. Behavioral Sciences, 8(4), 37.

DuPaul, G. J., Gormley, M. J., & Laracy, S. D. (2013). Comorbidity of LD and ADHD: Implications of DSM-5 for assessment and treatment. Journal of learning disabilities, 46(1), 43-51.

Durell, T. M., Adler, L. A., Williams, D. W., Deldar, A., McGough, J. J., Glaser, P. E., . . . Fox, B. K. (2013). Atomoxetine treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in young adults with assessment of functional outcomes: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. J Clin Psychopharmacol, 33(1), 45-54.

Dvorsky, M. R., & Langberg, J. M. (2016). A Review of Factors that Promote Resilience in Youth with ADHD and ADHD Symptoms. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 19(4), 368-391.

Ebejer, J. L., Medland, S. E., Van Der Werf, J., Gondro, C., Henders, A. K., Lynskey, M., . . . Duffy, D. L. (2012). Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in Australian adults: prevalence, persistence, conduct problems and disadvantage. PLoS One, 7(10), e47404.

Efron, D., Davies, S., & Sciberras, E. (2013). Current Australian pediatric practice in the assessment and treatment of ADHD. Acad Pediatr, 13(4), 328-333.

Efron, D., Nicholson, J. M., Anderson, V., Silk, T., Ukoumunne, O. C., Gulenc, A., . . . Sciberras, E. (2020). ADHD at Age 7 and Functional Impairments at Age 10. Pediatrics, 146(5).

Erskine, H. E., Norman, R. E., Ferrari, A. J., Chan, G. C. K., Copeland, W. E., Whiteford, H. A., & Scott, J. G. (2016). Long-Term Outcomes of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Conduct Disorder: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 55(10), 841-850.

Evans, S. W., Schultz, B. K., & DeMars, C. E. (2014). High School–Based Treatment for Adolescents With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Results From a Pilot Study Examining Outcomes and Dosage. School Psychology Review, 43(2), 185-202.

Fabiano, G. A., Pelham, W. E., Cunningham, C. E., Yu, J., Gangloff, B., Buck, M., . . . Gera, S. (2012). A waitlist-controlled trial of behavioral parent training for fathers of children with ADHD. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 41(3), 337-345.

Faraone, S. V., Asherson, P., Banaschewski, T., Biederman, J., Buitelaar, J. K., Ramos-Quiroga, J. A., . . . Franke, B. (2015). Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Nature Reviews. Disease Primers, 1, 1-23.

Faraone, S. V., Banaschewski, T., Coghill, D., Zheng, Y., Biederman, J., Bellgrove, M. A., . . . Wang, Y. (2021). The World Federation of ADHD International Consensus Statement: 208 Evidence-based conclusions about the disorder. Neurosci Biobehav Rev, 128, 789-818.

Faraone, S. V., & Larsson, H. (2019). Genetics of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Mol Psychiatry, 24(4), 562-575.

Faraone, S. V., Rostain, A. L., Blader, J., Busch, B., Childress, A. C., Connor, D. F., & Newcorn, J. H. (2019). Practitioner Review: Emotional dysregulation in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder – implications for clinical recognition and intervention. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 60(2), 133-150.

Fehlings, D. L., Roberts, W., Humphries, T., & Dawe, G. (1991). Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: does cognitive behavioral therapy improve home behavior? J Dev Behav Pediatr, 12(4), 223-228.

Field, S., Parker, D. R., Sawilowsky, S., & Rolands, L. (2013). Assessing the impact of ADHD coaching services on university students’ learning skills, self-regulation, and well-being. . Journal of Postsecondary Education and Disability, 26, 67-81.

Fleming, A. P., McMahon, R. J., Moran, L. R., Peterson, A. P., & Dreessen, A. (2015). Pilot randomized controlled trial of dialectical behavior therapy group skills training for ADHD among college students. Journal of Attention Disorders, 19(3), 260-271.

Fluyau, D., Revadigar, N., & Pierre, C. G. (2021). Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis: Treatment of Substance Use Disorder in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Am J Addict, 30(2), 110-121.

Ford, T. (2020). Transitional care for young adults with ADHD: transforming potential upheaval into smooth progression. Epidemiol Psychiatr Sci, 29, e87.

Franke, B., Michelini, G., Asherson, P., Banaschewski, T., Bilbow, A., Buitelaar, J. K., . . . Reif, A. (2018). Live fast, die young? A review on the developmental trajectories of ADHD across the lifespan. European Neuropsychopharmacology, 28(10), 1059-1088.

Fried, R., DiSalvo, M., Kelberman, C., Adler, A., McCafferty, D., Woodworth, K. Y., . . . Biederman, J. (2020). An innovative SMS intervention to improve adherence to stimulants in children with ADHD: Preliminary findings. J Psychopharmacol, 34(8), 883-890.

Fusar-Poli, P., Rubia, K., Rossi, G., Sartori, G., & Balottin, U. (2012). Striatal dopamine transporter alterations in ADHD: pathophysiology or adaptation to psychostimulants? A meta-analysis. Am J Psychiatry, 169(3), 264-272.

Gainetdinov, R. R., Wetsel, W. C., Jones, S. R., Levin, E. D., Jaber, M., & Caron, M. G. (1999). Role of serotonin in the paradoxical calming effect of psychostimulants on hyperactivity. Science, 283(5400), 397-401.

Gamo, N. J., Wang, M., & Arnsten, A. F. (2010). Methylphenidate and atomoxetine enhance prefrontal function through alpha2-adrenergic and dopamine D1 receptors. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry, 49(10), 1011-1023.

Garcia Pimenta, M., Brown, T., Arns, M., & Enriquez-Geppert, S. (2021). Treatment Efficacy and Clinical Effectiveness of EEG Neurofeedback as a Personalized and Multimodal Treatment in ADHD: A Critical Review. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat, 17, 637-648.

German Association of the Scientific Medical Societies (AWMF), S. G. C. (2017). ADHD in children, adolescents and adults. English version. In.

Gevensleben, H., Holl, B., Albrecht, B., Vogel, C., Schlamp, D., Kratz, O., . . . Heinrich, H. (2009). Is neurofeedback an efficacious treatment for ADHD? A randomised controlled clinical trial. J Child Psychol Psychiatry, 50(7), 780-789.

Ghosh, M., Holman, C. A. J., & Preen, D. B. (2015). Use of prescription stimulant for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Aboriginal children and adolescents: a linked data cohort study. BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology, 16(1), 1-8.

Ghuman, J. K., Aman, M. G., Lecavalier, L., Riddle, M. A., Gelenberg, A., Wright, R., . . . Fort, C. (2009). Randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover study of methylphenidate for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms in preschoolers with developmental disorders. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol, 19(4), 329-339.

Ginsberg, Y., & Lindefors, N. (2012). Methylphenidate treatment of adult male prison inmates with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: randomised double-blind placebo-controlled trial with open-label extension. Br J Psychiatry, 200(1), 68-73.

Ginsberg, Y., Quintero, J., Anand, E., Casillas, M., & Upadhyaya, H. P. (2014). Underdiagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in adult patients: a review of the literature. The primary care companion for CNS disorders, 16(3).

Giros, B., Jaber, M., Jones, S. R., Wightman, R. M., & Caron, M. G. (1996). Hyperlocomotion nad indifference to cocaine and amphetamine in mice lacking the dopamine transporter. Nature, 379, 606-612.

Gnanavel, S., Sharma, P., Kaushal, P., & Hussain, S. (2019). Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and comorbidity: A review of literature. World journal of clinical cases, 7(17), 2420.

Graetz, B. W., Sawyer, M. G., Hazell, P. L., Arney, F., & Baghurst, P. (2001). Validity of DSM-IV ADHD subtypes in a nationally representative sample of Australian children and adolescents. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 40(12), 1410-1417.

Greenhill, L., Kollins, S., Abikoff, H., McCracken, J., Riddle, M., Swanson, J., . . . Cooper, T. (2006). Efficacy and safety of immediate-release methylphenidate treatment for preschoolers with ADHD. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry, 45(11), 1284-1293.

Groenman, A. P., Janssen, T. W. P., & Oosterlaan, J. (2017). Childhood Psychiatric Disorders as Risk Factor for Subsequent Substance Abuse: A Meta-Analysis. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry, 56(7), 556-569.

Groenman, A. P., Oosterlaan, J., Rommelse, N., Franke, B., Roeyers, H., Oades, R. D., . . . Faraone, S. V. (2013). Substance use disorders in adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a 4-year follow-up study. Addiction, 108(8), 1503-1511.

Gudjonsson, G. H., Wells, J., & Young, S. (2012). Personality disorders and clinical syndromes in ADHD prisoners. J Atten Disord, 16(4), 304-313.

Hahn-Markowitz, J., Berger, I., Manor, I., & Maeir, A. (2017). Impact of the Cognitive-Functional (Cog-Fun) Intervention on Executive Functions and Participation Among Children With Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Am J Occup Ther, 71(5), 7105220010p7105220011-7105220010p7105220019.

Haimov-Kochman, R., & Berger, I. (2014). Cognitive functions of regularly cycling women may differ throughout the month, depending on sex hormone status; a possible explanation to conflicting results of studies of ADHD in females. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 8, 191.

Hall, C. L., Newell, K., Taylor, J., Sayal, K., Swift, K. D., & Hollis, C. (2013). ‘Mind the gap’–mapping services for young people with ADHD transitioning from child to adult mental health services. Bmc Psychiatry, 13, 186.

Halperin, J. M., & Marks, D. J. (2019). Practitioner Review: Assessment and treatment of preschool children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 60(9), 930-943.

Halperin, J. M., Marks, D. J., Chacko, A., Bedard, A. C., O’Neill, S., Curchack-Lichtin, J., . . . Berwid, O. G. (2020). Training Executive, Attention, and Motor Skills (TEAMS): a Preliminary Randomized Clinical Trial of Preschool Youth with ADHD. J Abnorm Child Psychol, 48(3), 375-389.

Hart, H., Radua, J., Nakao, T., Mataix-Cols, D., & Rubia, K. (2013). Meta-analysis of functional magnetic resonance imaging studies of inhibition and attention in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: exploring task-specific, stimulant medication, and age effects. JAMA Psychiatry, 70(2), 185-198.

Hasslinger, J., Bölte, S., & Jonsson, U. (2021). Slow cortical potential versus live Z-score neurofeedback in children and adolescents with ADHD: A multi-arm pragmatic randomized controlled trial with active and passive comparators. Research on child and adolescent psychopathology, 1-16.

Health, A. I. o., & Welfare. (2013). Towards Better Indigenous Health Data: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare.

Hepark, S., Janssen, L., de Vries, A., Schoenberg, P. L. A., Donders, R., Kan, C. C., & Speckens, A. E. M. (2019). The Efficacy of Adapted MBCT on Core Symptoms and Executive Functioning in Adults With ADHD: A Preliminary Randomized Controlled Trial. J Atten Disord, 23(4), 351-362.

Hinshaw, S. P., Nguyen, P. T., O’Grady, S. M., & Rosenthal, E. A. (2021). Annual Research Review: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in girls and women: underrepresentation, longitudinal processes, and key directions. J Child Psychol Psychiatry.

Hirvikoski, T., Waaler, E., Alfredsson, J., Pihlgren, C., Holmstrom, A., Johnson, A., . . . Nordstrom, A. L. (2011). Reduced ADHD symptoms in adults with ADHD after structured skills training group: results from a randomized controlled trial. Behav Res Ther, 49(3), 175-185.

Hiscock, H., Mulraney, M., Heussler, H., Rinehart, N., Schuster, T., Grobler, A. C., . . . Sciberras, E. (2019). Impact of a behavioral intervention, delivered by pediatricians or psychologists, on sleep problems in children with ADHD: a cluster‐randomized, translational trial. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 60(11), 1230-1241.

Hoath, F. E., & Sanders, M. R. (2002). A feasibility study of Enhanced Group Triple P—positive parenting program for parents of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Behaviour Change, 19(4), 191-206.

Hoogman, M., Bralten, J., Hibar, D. P., Mennes, M., Zwiers, M. P., Schweren, L. S. J., . . . Franke, B. (2017). Subcortical brain volume differences in participants with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children and adults: a cross-sectional mega-analysis. Lancet Psychiatry, 4(4), 310-319.

Hoogman, M., Muetzel, R., Guimaraes, J. P., Shumskaya, E., Mennes, M., Zwiers, M. P., . . . Franke, B. (2019). Brain Imaging of the Cortex in ADHD: A Coordinated Analysis of Large-Scale Clinical and Population-Based Samples. Am J Psychiatry, 176(7), 531-542.

Horn, W. F., Ialongo, N., Greenberg, G., Packard, T., & Smith-Winberry, C. (1990). Additive effects of behavioral parent training and self-control therapy with attention deficit hyperactivity disordered children. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 19(2), 98-110.

Hoxhaj, E., Sadohara, C., Borel, P., D’Amelio, R., Sobanski, E., Muller, H., . . . Philipsen, A. (2018). Mindfulness vs psychoeducation in adult ADHD: a randomized controlled trial. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci, 268(4), 321-335.

Humphreys, K. L., Eng, T., & Lee, S. S. (2013). Stimulant medication and substance use outcomes: a meta-analysis. JAMA Psychiatry, 70(7), 740-749.

Ilie, G., Vingilis, E. R., Mann, R. E., Hamilton, H., Toplak, M., Adlaf, E. M., . . . Asbridge, M. (2015). The association between traumatic brain injury and ADHD in a Canadian adult sample. Journal of psychiatric research, 69, 174-179.

Iwanami, A., Saito, K., Fujiwara, M., Okutsu, D., & Ichikawa, H. (2020). Efficacy and Safety of Guanfacine Extended-Release in the Treatment of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Adults: Results of a Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study. J Clin Psychiatry, 81(3).

Jain, R., Segal, S., Kollins, S. H., & Khayrallah, M. (2011). Clonidine extended-release tablets for pediatric patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry, 50(2), 171-179.

Janssen, L., Kan, C. C., Carpentier, P. J., Sizoo, B., Hepark, S., Schellekens, M. P. J., . . . Speckens, A. E. M. (2019). Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy v. treatment as usual in adults with ADHD: a multicentre, single-blind, randomised controlled trial. Psychol Med, 49(1), 55-65.

Jensen, P. S., Arnold, L. E., Swanson, J. M., Vitiello, B., Abikoff, H. B., Greenhill, L. L., . . . Wells, K. C. (2007). 3-year follow-up of the NIMH MTA study. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 46(8), 989-1002.

Jones, K. (2008). In whose interest? Relationships between health consumer groups and the pharmaceutical industry in the UK. Sociology of Health & Illness, 30(6), 929-943.

Jones, K., Baggott, R., & Allsop, J. (2004). Influencing the national policy process: the role of health consumer groups. Health Expect, 7(1), 18-28.

Katzman, M. A., Bilkey, T. S., Chokka, P. R., Fallu, A., & Klassen, L. J. (2017). Adult ADHD and comorbid disorders: clinical implications of a dimensional approach. Bmc Psychiatry, 17(1), 1-15.

Kelly, A. M., Uddin, L. Q., Biswal, B. B., Castellanos, F. X., & Milham, M. P. (2008). Competition between functional brain networks mediates behavioral variability. Neuroimage, 39(1), 527-537.

Kemper, A. R., Maslow, G. R., Hill, S., Namdari, B., LaPointe, N. M. A., Goode, A. P., . . . Bowen, S. E. (2018). Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: Diagnosis and treatment in children and adolescents.

Kessler, R. C., Adler, L., Ames, M., Demler, O., Faraone, S., Hiripi, E., . . . Spencer, T. (2005). The World Health Organization Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS): a short screening scale for use in the general population. Psychological medicine, 35(2), 245.

Kessler, R. C., Adler, L., Barkley, R., Biederman, J., Conners, C. K., Demler, O., . . . Secnik, K. (2006). The prevalence and correlates of adult ADHD in the United States: results from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. American journal of psychiatry, 163(4), 716-723.

Kilpatrick, E., Keeney, S., & McCauley, C. O. (2017). Tokenistic or genuinely effective? Exploring the views of voluntary sector staff regarding the emerging peer support worker role in mental health. J Psychiatr Ment Health Nurs, 24(7), 503-512.

Kollins, S. H., DeLoss, D. J., Canadas, E., Lutz, J., Findling, R. L., Keefe, R. S. E., . . . Faraone, S. V. (2020). A novel digital intervention for actively reducing severity of paediatric ADHD (STARS-ADHD): a randomised controlled trial. Lancet Digit Health, 2(4), e168-e178.

Konofal, E., Lecendreux, M., Arnulf, I., & Mouren, M. C. (2004). Iron deficiency in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med, 158(12), 1113-1115.

Konstenius, M., Larsson, H., Lundholm, L., Philips, B., van de Glind, G., Jayaram-Lindstrom, N., & Franck, J. (2015). An epidemiological study of ADHD, substance use, and comorbid problems in incarcerated women in Sweden. J Atten Disord, 19(1), 44-52.

Konstenius, M., Larsson, H., Lundholm, L., Philips, B., van de Glind, G., Jayaram-Lindström, N., & Franck, J. (2015). An epidemiological study of ADHD, substance use, and comorbid problems in incarcerated women in Sweden. Journal of Attention Disorders, 19(1), 44-52.

Kooij, J. J., Burger, H., Boonstra, A. M., Van der Linden, P. D., Kalma, L. E., & Buitelaar, J. K. (2004). Efficacy and safety of methylphenidate in 45 adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. A randomized placebo-controlled double-blind cross-over trial. Psychol Med, 34(6), 973-982.

Kooij, J. J., Franken, M. H., & Bron, T. I. (2019). DIVA-5 Diagnostic Interview for ADHD in Adults (3rd Edition; DIVA-5). Netherlands: DIVA Foundation

Kooij, J. J. S., Bijlenga, D., Salerno, L., Jaeschke, R., Bitter, I., Balazs, J., . . . Asherson, P. (2019). Updated European Consensus Statement on diagnosis and treatment of adult ADHD. European Psychiatry, 56, 14-34.

Korrel, H., Mueller, K. L., Silk, T., Anderson, V., & Sciberras, E. (2017). Research Review: Language problems in children with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder – a systematic meta-analytic review. J Child Psychol Psychiatry, 58(6), 640-654.

Lan, Y. T., Liu, X. P., & Fang, H. S. (2020). Randomized control study of the effects of executive function training on peer difficulties of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder C subtype. Appl Neuropsychol Child, 9(1), 41-55.

Lange, A. M., Daley, D., Frydenberg, M., Houmann, T., Kristensen, L. J., Rask, C., . . . Thomsen, P. H. (2018). Parent Training for Preschool ADHD in Routine, Specialist Care: A Randomized Controlled Trial. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry, 57(8), 593-602.

Lange, S., Rehm, J., Anagnostou, E., & Popova, S. (2018). Prevalence of externalizing disorders and Autism Spectrum Disorders among children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder: systematic review and meta-analysis. Biochemistry and cell biology, 96(2), 241-251.

Larsen, L. B., Daley, D., Lange, A. M., Sonuga-Barke, E., Thomsen, P. H., & Rask, C. U. (2021). Effect of Parent Training on Health-Related Quality of Life in Preschool Children With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Secondary Analysis of Data From a Randomized Controlled Trial. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry, 60(6), 734-744 e733.

Larsson, H., Chang, Z., D’Onofrio, B. M., & Lichtenstein, P. (2014). The heritability of clinically diagnosed attention deficit hyperactivity disorder across the lifespan. Psychol Med, 44(10), 2223-2229.

Lawrence, D., Johnson, S., Hafekost, J., Boterhoven De Haan, K., Sawyer, M., Ainley, J., & Zubrick, S. (2015). The Mental Health of Children and Adolescents. Report on the second Australian Child and Adolescent Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing. Canberra: Department of Health

Lee, E.-J., & Jung, C.-H. (2017). Additive effects of neurofeedback on the treatment of ADHD: A randomized controlled study. Asian journal of psychiatry, 25, 16-21.

Lee, S. S., Humphreys, K. L., Flory, K., Liu, R., & Glass, K. (2011). Prospective association of childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and substance use and abuse/dependence: a meta-analytic review. Clin Psychol Rev, 31(3), 328-341.

Lee, Y. C., Yang, H. J., Chen, V. C., Lee, W. T., Teng, M. J., Lin, C. H., & Gossop, M. (2016). Meta-analysis of quality of life in children and adolescents with ADHD: By both parent proxy-report and child self-report using PedsQL. Res Dev Disabil, 51-52, 160-172.

Levy, F. (1991). The dopamine theory of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Aust N Z J Psychiatry, 25(2), 277-283.

Levy, F., Hay, D., McStephen, M., Wood, C., & Waldman, I. (1997). Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: a category or a continuum?  Genetic analysis of a large-scale twin study. Journal of the American Academcy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 36, 737-744.

Li, Y.-J., Xie, X.-N., Lei, X., Li, Y.-M., & Lei, X. (2020). Global prevalence of obesity, overweight and underweight in children, adolescents and adults with autism spectrum disorder, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Obesity Reviews, 21(12).

Lichtenstein, P., Halldner, L., Zetterqvist, J., Sjolander, A., Serlachius, E., Fazel, S., . . . Larsson, H. (2012). Medication for attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder and criminality. N Engl J Med, 367(21), 2006-2014.

Lim, C. G., Poh, X. W. W., Fung, S. S. D., Guan, C., Bautista, D., Cheung, Y. B., . . . Lee, T. S. (2019). A randomized controlled trial of a brain-computer interface based attention training program for ADHD. PLoS One, 14(5), e0216225.

Little, J. (2007). Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Westerman Aboriginal Symptom Checklist, Youth (aged 13 – 17 years). The WASC-Y manual (2nd edition). In T. G. Westerman (Ed.), The cultural and clinical validation guidelines for the administration of the WASCY. Perth, WA: IPS.

Loh, P.-R., Hayden, G., Vicary, D., Mancini, V., Martin, N., & Piek, J. P. (2017). Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: an Aboriginal perspective on diagnosis and intervention. Journal of Tropical Psychology, 7.

Loh, P., Hayden, G., Vicary, D., Mancini, V., Martin, N., & Piek, J. (2016). Australian Aboriginal perspectives of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Australian & New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 50(4), 309-310.

Luderer, M., Kaplan-Wickel, N., Richter, A., Reinhard, I., Kiefer, F., & Weber, T. (2019). Screening for adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in alcohol dependent patients: Underreporting of ADHD symptoms in self-report scales. Drug and alcohol dependence, 195, 52-58.

Lugo, J., Fadeuilhe, C., Gisbert, L., Setien, I., Delgado, M., Corrales, M., . . . Ramos-Quiroga, J. A. (2020). Sleep in adults with autism spectrum disorder and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder: A systematic review and meta-analysis. European Neuropsychopharmacology, 38, 1-24.

Mahdi, S., Viljoen, M., Massuti, R., Selb, M., Almodayfer, O., Karande, S., . . . Bolte, S. (2017). An international qualitative study of ability and disability in ADHD using the WHO-ICF framework. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry, 26(10), 1219-1231.

Marcer, H., Finlay, F., & Baverstock, A. (2008). ADHD and transition to adult services–the experience of community paediatricians. Child Care Health Dev, 34(5), 564-566.

Martins, S., Tramontina, S., Polanczyk, G., Eizirik, M., Swanson, J. M., & Rohde, L. A. (2004). Weekend holidays during methylphenidate use in ADHD children: a randomized clinical trial. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol, 14(2), 195-206.

Matheson, L., Asherson, P., Wong, I. C., Hodgkins, P., Setyawan, J., Sasane, R., & Clifford, S. (2013). Adult ADHD patient experiences of impairment, service provision and clinical management in England: a qualitative study. BMC Health Serv Res, 13, 184.

Matos, M., Bauermeister, J. J., & Bernal, G. (2009). Parent‐child interaction therapy for Puerto Rican preschool children with ADHD and behavior problems: A pilot efficacy study. Family process, 48(2), 232-252.

Matthijssen, A. M., Dietrich, A., Bierens, M., Kleine Deters, R., van de Loo-Neus, G. H. H., van den Hoofdakker, B. J., . . . Hoekstra, P. J. (2019). Continued Benefits of Methylphenidate in ADHD After 2 Years in Clinical Practice: A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Discontinuation Study. Am J Psychiatry, 176(9), 754-762.

Matthijssen, A. M., Dietrich, A., Bierens, M., Kleine Deters, R., van de Loo-Neus, G. H. H., van den Hoofdakker, B. J., . . . Hoekstra, P. J. (2020). Effects of Discontinuing Methylphenidate on Strengths and Difficulties, Quality of Life and Parenting Stress. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol, 30(3), 159-165.

Mawjee, K., Woltering, S., & Tannock, R. (2015). Working Memory Training in Post-Secondary Students with ADHD: A Randomized Controlled Study. PLoS One, 10(9), e0137173.

May, T., Aizenstros, A., & Aizenstros, J. (2021). Characteristics of adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder consecutively referred to an Australian private psychiatric clinic. . Australian Psychologist, 1-11.

McCann, B. S., Simpson, T. L., Ries, R., & Roy-Byrne, P. (2000). Reliability and validity of screening instruments for drug and alcohol abuse in adults seeking evaluation for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. American Journal on Addictions, 9(1), 1-9.

Merrill, B. M., Morrow, A. S., Altszuler, A. R., Macphee, F. L., Gnagy, E. M., Greiner, A. R., . . . Pelham, W. E. (2017). Improving homework performance among children with ADHD: A randomized clinical trial. Journal of consulting and clinical psychology, 85(2), 111.

Miller, E., & Eastwood, J. (2016). Healthy Homes and Neighbourhoods Integrated Care Initiative.

Minder, F., Zuberer, A., Brandeis, D., & Drechsler, R. (2018). Informant-related effects of neurofeedback and cognitive training in children with ADHD including a waiting control phase: a randomized-controlled trial. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry, 27(8), 1055-1066.

Mohammadi, M. R., Hafezi, P., Galeiha, A., Hajiaghaee, R., & Akhondzadeh, S. (2012). Buspirone versus methylphenidate in the treatment of children with attention- deficit/ hyperactivity disorder: randomized double-blind study. Acta Med Iran, 50(11), 723-728.

Mohr-Jensen, C., & Steinhausen, H. C. (2016). A meta-analysis and systematic review of the risks associated with childhood attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder on long-term outcome of arrests, convictions, and incarcerations. Clin Psychol Rev, 48, 32-42.

Molina, B. S., Flory, K., Bukstein, O. G., Greiner, A. R., Baker, J. L., Krug, V., & Evans, S. W. (2008). Feasibility and preliminary efficacy of an after-school program for middle schoolers with ADHD: a randomized trial in a large public middle school. J Atten Disord, 12(3), 207-217.

Momany, A. M., Kamradt, J. M., & Nikolas, M. A. (2018). A Meta-Analysis of the Association Between Birth Weight and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. J Abnorm Child Psychol, 46(7), 1409-1426.

Montano, C. B., & Young, J. (2012). Discontinuity in the transition from pediatric to adult health care for patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Postgrad Med, 124(5), 23-32.

Moore, E., Sunjic, S., Kaye, S., Archer, V., & Indig, D. (2016a). Adult ADHD among NSW prisoners: prevalence and psychiatric comorbidity. Journal of Attention Disorders, 20(11), 958-967.

Moore, E., Sunjic, S., Kaye, S., Archer, V., & Indig, D. (2016b). Adult ADHD Among NSW Prisoners: Prevalence and Psychiatric Comorbidity. J Atten Disord, 20(11), 958-967.

Moreno-Garcia, I., Meneres-Sancho, S., Camacho-Vara de Rey, C., & Servera, M. (2019). A Randomized Controlled Trial to Examine the Posttreatment Efficacy of Neurofeedback, Behavior Therapy, and Pharmacology on ADHD Measures. J Atten Disord, 23(4), 374-383.

Morsanyi, K., van Bers, B. M., McCormack, T., & McGourty, J. (2018). The prevalence of specific learning disorder in mathematics and comorbidity with other developmental disorders in primary school‐age children. British Journal of Psychology, 109(4), 917-940.

Mowlem, F., Agnew-Blais, J., Taylor, E., & Asherson, P. (2019). Do different factors influence whether girls versus boys meet ADHD diagnostic criteria? Sex differences among children with high ADHD symptoms. . Psychiatry Research, 272, 765-773.

Mulraney, M., Arrondo, G., Musullulu, H., Iturmendi-Sabater, I., Cortese, S., Westwood, S. J., . . . Zuddas, A. (2021). Systematic Review and Meta-analysis: Screening Tools for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Children and Adolescents. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry.

Murrup-Stewart, C., Whyman, T., Jobson, L., & Adams, K. (2021). “Connection to Culture Is Like a Massive Lifeline”: Yarning With Aboriginal Young People About Culture and Social and Emotional Wellbeing. Qualitative Health Research, 10497323211009475.

Murrup‐Stewart, C., Searle, A. K., Jobson, L., & Adams, K. (2019). Aboriginal perceptions of social and emotional wellbeing programs: A systematic review of literature assessing social and emotional wellbeing programs for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians perspectives. Australian Psychologist, 54(3), 171-186.

Nair, V., & Mahadevan, S. (2009). Randomised controlled study-efficacy of clonidine versus carbamazepine in children with ADHD. J Trop Pediatr, 55(2), 116-121.

National Health and Medical Research Council. (2007). NHMRC standards and procedures for externally developed guidelines. Australia

National Health and Medical Research Council. (2009). NHMRC levels of evidence and grades for recommendations for developers of guidelines. Australia

National Health and Medical Research Council. (2011). Procedures and requirements for meeting the 2011 NHMRC standard for clinical practice guidelines Australia

National Health and Medical Research Council. (2012). ADHD practice points on the diagnosis, assessment and management of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children and adolescents. Australia: Australian Government, NHMRC

National Health and Medical Research Council. (2016). 2016 NHMRC Standards for Guidelines. Australia Retrieved from

Newcorn, J. H., Nagy, P., Childress, A. C., Frick, G., Yan, B., & Pliszka, S. (2017). Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Acute Comparator Trials of Lisdexamfetamine and Extended-Release Methylphenidate in Adolescents With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. CNS Drugs, 31(11), 999-1014.

NICE. (2018). Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: diagnosis and management. . London, UK

Nigg, J. T. (2018). Toward an Emerging Paradigm for Understanding Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Other Neurodevelopmental, Mental, and Behavioral Disorders: Environmental Risks and Epigenetic Associations. JAMA Pediatr, 172(7), 619-621.

Nigg, J. T., Willcutt, E. G., Doyle, A. E., & Sonuga-Barke, E. J. (2005). Causal heterogeneity in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: do we need neuropsychologically impaired subtypes? Biological psychiatry, 57(11), 1224-1230.

Ozgen, H., Spijkerman, R., Noack, M., Holtmann, M., Schellekens, A. S. A., van de Glind, G., . . . Hendriks, V. (2020). International Consensus Statement for the Screening, Diagnosis, and Treatment of Adolescents with Concurrent Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Substance Use Disorder. Eur Addict Res, 26(4-5), 223-232.

Papadopoulos, N., Sciberras, E., Hiscock, H., Mulraney, M., McGillivray, J., & Rinehart, N. (2019). The efficacy of a brief behavioral sleep intervention in school-aged children with ADHD and comorbid autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Attention Disorders, 23(4), 341-350.

Paul, M., Ford, T., Kramer, T., Islam, Z., Harley, K., & Singh, S. P. (2013). Transfers and transitions between child and adult mental health services. Br J Psychiatry Suppl, 54, s36-40.

Philipp-Wiegmann, F., Retz-Junginger, P., Retz, W., & Roesler, M. (2016). The intraindividual impact of ADHD on the transition of adulthood to old age. European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience, 266(4), 367-371.

Philipsen, A., Jans, T., Graf, E., Matthies, S., Borel, P., Colla, M., . . . Psychotherapy in Adult, A. S. C. (2015). Effects of Group Psychotherapy, Individual Counseling, Methylphenidate, and Placebo in the Treatment of Adult Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA Psychiatry, 72(12), 1199-1210.

Pliszka, S. R., McCracken, J. T., & Maas, J. W. (1996). Catecholamines in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: current perspectives. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry, 35(3), 264-272.

Polanczyk, G., De Lima, M. S., Horta, B. L., Biederman, J., & Rohde, L. A. (2007). The worldwide prevalence of ADHD: a systematic review and metaregression analysis. American journal of psychiatry, 164(6), 942-948.

Power, T. J., Mautone, J. A., Soffer, S. L., Clarke, A. T., Marshall, S. A., Sharman, J., . . . Jawad, A. F. (2012). A family–school intervention for children with ADHD: Results of a randomized clinical trial. Journal of consulting and clinical psychology, 80(4), 611.

Qian, Y., Chen, M., Shuai, L., Cao, Q. J., Yang, L., & Wang, Y. F. (2017). Effect of an Ecological Executive Skill Training Program for School-aged Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial. Chin Med J (Engl), 130(13), 1513-1520.

Quinn, P. O., & Madhoo, M. (2014). A review of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in women and girls: uncovering this hidden diagnosis. Prim Care Companion CNS Disord, 16(3).

Rahi, V., & Kumar, P. (2021). Animal models of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Int J Dev Neurosci, 81(2), 107-124.

Rajabi, S., Pakize, A., & Moradi, N. (2020). Effect of combined neurofeedback and game-based cognitive training on the treatment of ADHD: A randomized controlled study. Appl Neuropsychol Child, 9(3), 193-205.

Razzak, H. A., Ghader, N., Qureshi, A. A., Zafar, M., Shaijan, J. F., & Al Kuwari, M. (2021). Clinical Practice Guidelines for the Evaluation and Diagnosis of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Children and Adolescents: A systematic review of the literature. Sultan Qaboos University Medical Journal, 21(1), e12.

Reale, L., Bartoli, B., Cartabia, M., Zanetti, M., Costantino, M. A., Canevini, M. P., . . . Bonati, M. (2017). Comorbidity prevalence and treatment outcome in children and adolescents with ADHD. European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 26(12), 1443-1457.

Rezaei, M., Salarpor Kamarzard, T., & Najafian Razavi, M. (2018). The effects of neurofeedback, yoga interventions on memory and cognitive activity in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder: A randomized controlled trial. Annals of Applied Sport Science, 6(4), 17-27.

Roberts, B., Eisenlohr-Moul, T., & Martel, M. M. (2018). Reproductive steroids and ADHD symptoms across the menstrual cycle. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 88, 105-114.

Rooney, J. M., Miles, N., & Barker, T. (2016). Patients’ views: Peer support worker on inpatient wards. . Mental Health and Social Inclusion, 20(3), 160-166.

Rosler, M., Retz, W., Yaqoobi, K., Burg, E., & Retz-Junginger, P. (2009). Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder in female offenders: prevalence, psychiatric comorbidity and psychosocial implications. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci, 259(2), 98-105.

Royal Australasian College of Physicians. (2009). Australian guidelines on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. In: RACP.

Royal Australia and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists. (2013). The role of a psychiatrist in Australia and New Zealand: Position Statement 80. RANZCP

Royal Australian & New Zealand College of Psychiatrists. (2021). Position statement 62: Partnering with people with a lived experience. In: RANZCP.

Russell, V., Allie, S., & Wiggins, T. (2000). Increased noradrenergic activity in prefrontal cortex slices of an animal model for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder–the spontaneously hypertensive rat. Behav Brain Res, 117(1-2), 69-74.

Rutter, M. (2005). Genes and behaviour. Nature-nurture interplay explained. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.

Safavi, P., Dehkordi, A. H., & Ghasemi, N. (2016). Comparison of the effects of methylphenidate and the combination of methylphenidate and risperidone in preschool children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. J Adv Pharm Technol Res, 7(4), 144-148.

Sandstrom, A., Perroud, N., Alda, M., Uher, R., & Pavlova, B. (2021). Prevalence of attention‐deficit/hyperactivity disorder in people with mood disorders: A systematic review and meta‐analysis. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 143(5), 380-391.

Sawyer, M. G., Reece, C. E., Sawyer, A. C., Johnson, S. E., & Lawrence, D. (2018). Has the prevalence of child and adolescent mental disorders in Australia changed between 1998 and 2013 to 2014? Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 57(5), 343-350. e345.

Scahill, L., Chappell, P. B., Kim, Y. S., Schultz, R. T., Katsovich, L., Shepherd, E., . . . Leckman, J. F. (2001). A placebo-controlled study of guanfacine in the treatment of children with tic disorders and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Am J Psychiatry, 158(7), 1067-1074.

Scahill, L., McCracken, J. T., King, B. H., Rockhill, C., Shah, B., Politte, L., . . . Research Units on Pediatric Psychopharmacology Autism, N. (2015). Extended-Release Guanfacine for Hyperactivity in Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder. Am J Psychiatry, 172(12), 1197-1206.

Schiweck, C., Arteaga-Henriquez, G., Aichholzer, M., Thanarajah, S. E., Vargas-Cáceres, S., Matura, S., . . . Ramos-Quiroga, J. A. (2021). Comorbidity of ADHD and adult bipolar disorder: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews.

Schonenberg, M., Wiedemann, E., Schneidt, A., Scheeff, J., Logemann, A., Keune, P. M., & Hautzinger, M. (2017). Neurofeedback, sham neurofeedback, and cognitive-behavioural group therapy in adults with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: a triple-blind, randomised, controlled trial. Lancet Psychiatry, 4(9), 673-684.

Sciberras, E., Mulraney, M., Anderson, V., Rapee, R. M., Nicholson, J. M., Efron, D., . . . Hiscock, H. (2018). Managing Anxiety in Children With ADHD Using Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial. J Atten Disord, 22(5), 515-520.

Sciberras, E., Mulraney, M., Mensah, F., Oberklaid, F., Efron, D., & Hiscock, H. (2020). Sustained impact of a sleep intervention and moderators of treatment outcome for children with ADHD: a randomised controlled trial. Psychological medicine, 50(2), 210-219.

Sciberras, E., Streatfeild, J., Ceccato, T., Pezzullo, L., Scott, J. G., Middeldorp, C. M., . . . Coghill, D. (2020). Social and economic costs of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder across the lifespan. Journal of Attention Disorders, 1087054720961828.

Sciberras, E., Streatfeild, J., Ceccato, T., Pezzullo, L., Scott, J. G., Middeldorp, C. M., . . . Coghill, D. (2022). Social and Economic Costs of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Across the Lifespan. J Atten Disord, 26(1), 72-87.

Sedgwick, J. A., Merwood, A., & Asherson, P. (2019). The positive aspects of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a qualitative investigation of successful adults with ADHD. Atten Defic Hyperact Disord, 11(3), 241-253.

Sedky, K., Bennett, D. S., & Carvalho, K. S. (2014). Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and sleep disordered breathing in pediatric populations: a meta-analysis. Sleep medicine reviews, 18(4), 349-356.

Shanahan, P., Ollis, L., Balla, K., Patel, R., & Long, K. (2020). Experiences of transition from children’s to adult’s healthcare services for young people with a neurodevelopmental condition. Health Soc Care Community.

Shaw, P., Eckstrand, K., Sharp, W., Blumenthal, J., Lerch, J. P., Greenstein, D., . . . Rapoport, J. L. (2007). Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder is characterized by a delay in cortical maturation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 104(49), 19649-19654.

Shaw, P., Stringaris, A., Nigg, J., & Leibenluft, E. (2014). Emotion Dysregulation in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. American journal of psychiatry, 171(3), 276-293.

Sibley, M. H., Coxe, S. J., Campez, M., Morley, C., Olson, S., Hidalgo-Gato, N., . . . Pelham, W. E. (2018). High versus Low Intensity Summer Treatment for ADHD Delivered at Secondary School Transitions. J Clin Child Adolesc Psychol, 47(2), 248-265.

Sibley, M. H., Graziano, P. A., Kuriyan, A. B., Coxe, S., Pelham, W. E., Rodriguez, L., . . . Ward, A. (2016). Parent–teen behavior therapy+ motivational interviewing for adolescents with ADHD. Journal of consulting and clinical psychology, 84(8), 699.

Sibley, M. H., Pelham, W. E., Derefinko, K. J., Kuriyan, A. B., Sanchez, F., & Graziano, P. A. (2013). A pilot trial of Supporting Teens’ Academic Needs Daily (STAND): A parent-adolescent collaborative intervention for ADHD. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 35(4), 436-449.

Silva, D., Colvin, L., Glauert, R., & Bower, C. (2014). Contact with the juvenile justice system in children treated with stimulant medication for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a population study. Lancet Psychiatry, 1(4), 278-285.

Silva, D., Colvin, L., Glauert, R., Stanley, F., Jois, R. S., & Bower, C. (2020). Literacy and Numeracy Underachievement in Boys and Girls With ADHD. Journal of Attention Disorders, 24(10), 1392-1402.

Silva, D., Colvin, L., Hagemann, E., Stanley, F., & Bower, C. (2014). Children diagnosed with attention deficit disorder and their hospitalisations: population data linkage study. European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 23(11), 1043-1050.

Simon, V., Czobor, P., Bálint, S., Mészáros, A., & Bitter, I. (2009). Prevalence and correlates of adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: meta-analysis. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 194(3), 204-211.

Simonoff, E., Taylor, E., Baird, G., Bernard, S., Chadwick, O., Liang, H., . . . Jichi, F. (2013). Randomized controlled double-blind trial of optimal dose methylphenidate in children and adolescents with severe attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and intellectual disability. J Child Psychol Psychiatry, 54(5), 527-535.

Smith, S. D., Vitulano, L. A., Katsovich, L., Li, S., Moore, C., Li, F., . . . Leckman, J. F. (2016). A Randomized Controlled Trial of an Integrated Brain, Body, and Social Intervention for Children With ADHD. J Atten Disord, 24(5), 780-794.

Solanto, M. V., Marks, D. J., Wasserstein, J., Mitchell, K., Abikoff, H., Alvir, J. M., & Kofman, M. D. (2010). Efficacy of meta-cognitive therapy for adult ADHD. Am J Psychiatry, 167(8), 958-968.

Solleveld, M. M., Schrantee, A., Baek, H. K., Bottelier, M. A., Tamminga, H. G., Bouziane, C., . . . Rijsman, R. M. (2020). Effects of 16 weeks of methylphenidate treatment on actigraph-assessed sleep measures in medication-naive children with ADHD. Frontiers in psychiatry, 11, 82.

Song, P., Zha, M., Yang, Q., Zhang, Y., Li, X., & Rudan, I. (2021). The prevalence of adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: A global systematic review and meta-analysis. J Glob Health, 11, 04009.

Sonuga-Barke, E. J. S., Barton, J., Daley, D., Hutchings, J., Maishman, T., Raftery, J., . . . Thompson, M. J. J. (2018). A comparison of the clinical effectiveness and cost of specialised individually delivered parent training for preschool attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and a generic, group-based programme: a multi-centre, randomised controlled trial of the New Forest Parenting Programme versus Incredible Years. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry, 27(6), 797-809.

Steeger, C. M., Gondoli, D. M., Gibson, B. S., & Morrissey, R. A. (2016). Combined cognitive and parent training interventions for adolescents with ADHD and their mothers: A randomized controlled trial. Child Neuropsychol, 22(4), 394-419.

Steiner, N. J., Frenette, E. C., Rene, K. M., Brennan, R. T., & Perrin, E. C. (2014). In-school neurofeedback training for ADHD: sustained improvements from a randomized control trial. Pediatrics, 133(3), 483-492.

Steiner, N. J., Sheldrick, R. C., Gotthelf, D., & Perrin, E. C. (2011). Computer-based attention training in the schools for children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a preliminary trial. Clin Pediatr (Phila), 50(7), 615-622.

Strehl, U., Aggensteiner, P., Wachtlin, D., Brandeis, D., Albrecht, B., Arana, M., . . . Holtmann, M. (2017). Neurofeedback of Slow Cortical Potentials in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Multicenter Randomized Trial Controlling for Unspecific Effects. Front Hum Neurosci, 11, 135.

Sudnawa, K. K., Chirdkiatgumchai, V., Ruangdaraganon, N., Khongkhatithum, C., Udomsubpayakul, U., Jirayucharoensak, S., & Israsena, P. (2018). Effectiveness of neurofeedback versus medication for attention‐deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Pediatrics International, 60(9), 828-834.

Sundquist, J., Ohlsson, H., Sundquist, K., & Kendler, K. S. (2015). Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and risk for drug use disorder: a population-based follow-up and co-relative study. Psychol Med, 45(5), 977-983.

Sutcubasi, B., Metin, B., Kurban, M. K., Metin, Z. E., Beser, B., & Sonuga-Barke, E. (2020). Resting-state network dysconnectivity in ADHD: A system-neuroscience-based meta-analysis. World J Biol Psychiatry, 21(9), 662-672.

Takahashi, M., Takita, Y., Yamazaki, K., Hayashi, T., Ichikawa, H., Kambayashi, Y., . . . Allen, A. J. (2009). A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of atomoxetine in Japanese children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol, 19(4), 341-350.

Tatlow-Golden, M., Prihodova, L., Gavin, B., Cullen, W., & McNicholas, F. (2016). What do general practitioners know about ADHD? Attitudes and knowledge among first-contact gatekeepers: systematic narrative review. BMC Fam Pract, 17(1), 129.

Taylor, A., Deb, S., & Unwin, G. (2011). Scales for the identification of adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): A systematic review. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 32(3), 924-938.

Taylor, F. B., & Russo, J. (2001). Comparing guanfacine and dextroamphetamine for the treatment of adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. J Clin Psychopharmacol, 21(2), 223-228.

Taylor, L. E., Kaplan-Kahn, E. A., Lighthall, R. A., & Antshel, K. M. (2021). Adult-Onset ADHD: A Critical Analysis and Alternative Explanations. Child Psychiatry & Human Development.

The GRADE Working Group. (2009). GRADE handbook for grading quality of evidence and strength of recommendation. (Schünemann H, Brozek J, & Oxman A Eds.  Vol. Version 3.2 [updated March 2009]).

The Royal Australian College of General Practitioners. (2009). Clinical guideline for the diagnosis and management of early rheumatoid arthritis. Australia

Thibault, R. T., Veissière, S., Olson, J. A., & Raz, A. (2018). EEG-Neurofeedback and the Correction of Misleading Information: A Reply to Pigott and Colleagues. Journal of Attention Disorders, 25(3), 458-459.

Thomas, R., Sanders, S., Doust, J., Beller, E., & Glasziou, P. (2015). Prevalence of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Pediatrics, 135(4), e994-1001.

Thompson, M. J., Laver-Bradbury, C., Ayres, M., Le Poidevin, E., Mead, S., Dodds, C., . . . Weeks, A. (2009). A small-scale randomized controlled trial of the revised new forest parenting programme for preschoolers with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 18(10), 605-616.

Ustun, B., Adler, L. A., Rudin, C., Faraone, S. V., Spencer, T. J., Berglund, P., . . . Kessler, R. C. (2017). The World Health Organization adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder self-report screening scale for DSM-5. JAMA Psychiatry, 74(5), 520-527.

Van de Glind, G., van den Brink, W., Koeter, M. W., Carpentier, P.-J., van Emmerik-van Oortmerssen, K., Kaye, S., . . . Konstenius, M. (2013). Validity of the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS) as a screener for adult ADHD in treatment seeking substance use disorder patients. Drug and alcohol dependence, 132(3), 587-596.

Van Den Hoofdakker, B. J., Van der Veen-Mulders, L., Sytema, S., Emmelkamp, P. M., Minderaa, R. B., & Nauta, M. H. (2007). Effectiveness of behavioral parent training for children with ADHD in routine clinical practice: a randomized controlled study. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 46(10), 1263-1271.

Van Doren, J., Arns, M., Heinrich, H., Vollebregt, M. A., Strehl, U., & S, K. L. (2019). Sustained effects of neurofeedback in ADHD: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry, 28(3), 293-305.

van Emmerik-van Oortmerssen, K., van de Glind, G., van den Brink, W., Smit, F., Crunelle, C. L., Swets, M., & Schoevers, R. A. (2012). Prevalence of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in substance use disorder patients: a meta-analysis and meta-regression analysis. Drug Alcohol Depend, 122(1-2), 11-19.

van Emmerik-van Oortmerssen, K., Vedel, E., Kramer, F. J., Blankers, M., Dekker, J. J. M., van den Brink, W., & Schoevers, R. A. (2019). Integrated cognitive behavioral therapy for ADHD in adult substance use disorder patients: Results of a randomized clinical trial. Drug Alcohol Depend, 197, 28-36.

Vibholm, H. A., Pedersen, J., Faltinsen, E., Marcussen, M. H., Gluud, C., & Storebo, O. J. (2018). Training, executive, attention and motor skills (TEAMS) training versus standard treatment for preschool children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a randomised clinical trial. BMC Res Notes, 11(1), 366.

Vidal, R., Bosch, R., Nogueira, M., Gomez-Barros, N., Valero, S., Palomar, G., . . . Ramos-Quiroga, J. A. (2013). Psychoeducation for adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder vs. cognitive behavioral group therapy: a randomized controlled pilot study. J Nerv Ment Dis, 201(10), 894-900.

Virta, M., Salakari, A., Antila, M., Chydenius, E., Partinen, M., Kaski, M., . . . Iivanainen, M. (2010). Short cognitive behavioral therapy and cognitive training for adults with ADHD – a randomized controlled pilot study. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat, 6, 443-453.

Vos, T., Barker, B., Begg, S., Stanley, L., & Lopez, A. D. (2009). Burden of disease and injury in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples: the Indigenous health gap. International journal of epidemiology, 38(2), 470-477.

Wang, Y., Zheng, Y., Du, Y., Song, D. H., Shin, Y. J., Cho, S. C., . . . Levine, L. R. (2007). Atomoxetine versus methylphenidate in paediatric outpatients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a randomized, double-blind comparison trial. Aust N Z J Psychiatry, 41(3), 222-230.

Ward, M. F. (1993). The Wender Utah Rating Scale: an aid in the retrospective diagnosis of childhood attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. American journal of psychiatry, 150, 885-885.

Watego, C., Singh, D., & Macoun, A. (2021). Partnership for Justice in Health: Scoping Paper on Race, Racism and the Australian Health System.

Webster-Stratton, C. H., Reid, M. J., & Beauchaine, T. (2011). Combining parent and child training for young children with ADHD. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 40(2), 191-203.

Wehmeier, P. M., Schacht, A., Ulberstad, F., Lehmann, M., Schneider-Fresenius, C., Lehmkuhl, G., . . . Banaschewski, T. (2012). Does atomoxetine improve executive function, inhibitory control, and hyperactivity? Results from a placebo-controlled trial using quantitative measurement technology. J Clin Psychopharmacol, 32(5), 653-660.

Weisler, R., Ginsberg, L., Dirks, B., Deas, P., Adeyi, B., & Adler, L. A. (2017). Treatment With Lisdexamfetamine Dimesylate Improves Self- and Informant-Rated Executive Function Behaviors and Clinician- and Informant-Rated ADHD Symptoms in Adults: Data From a Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study. J Atten Disord, 21(14), 1198-1207.

Weisman, O., Schonherz, Y., Harel, T., Efron, M., Elazar, M., & Gothelf, D. (2018). Testing the Efficacy of a Smartphone Application in Improving Medication Adherence, Among Children with ADHD. Isr J Psychiatry, 55(2), 59-63.

Wentz, E., Lacey, J. H., Waller, G., Råstam, M., Turk, J., & Gillberg, C. (2005). Childhood onset neuropsychiatric disorders in adult eating disorder patients. European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 14(8), 431-437.

Wernicke, J. F., Adler, L., Spencer, T., West, S. A., Allen, A. J., Heiligenstein, J., . . . Michelson, D. (2004). Changes in symptoms and adverse events after discontinuation of atomoxetine in children and adults with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a prospective, placebo-controlled assessment. J Clin Psychopharmacol, 24(1), 30-35.

Westmoreland, P., Gunter, T., Loveless, P., Allen, J., Sieleni, B., & Black, D. W. (2010). Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in men and women newly committed to prison: clinical characteristics, psychiatric comorbidity, and quality of life. Int J Offender Ther Comp Criminol, 54(3), 361-377.

Wigal, S., Chappell, P., Palumbo, D., Lubaczewski, S., Ramaker, S., & Abbas, R. (2020). Diagnosis and Treatment Options for Preschoolers with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology, 30(2), 104-118.

Willcutt, E. G. (2012). The Prevalence of DSM-IV Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Meta-Analytic Review. Neurotherapeutics, 9(3), 490-499.

Williamson, A., McElduff, P., Dadds, M., D’Este, C., Redman, S., Raphael, B., . . . Eades, S. (2014). The Construct Validity of the S trengths and D ifficulties Q uestionnaire for A boriginal Children Living in Urban N ew S outh W ales, A ustralia. Australian Psychologist, 49(3), 163-170.

Williamson, A., Redman, S., Dadds, M., Daniels, J., D’Este, C., Raphael, B., . . . Skinner, T. (2010). Acceptability of an emotional and behavioural screening tool for children in Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Services in urban NSW. Australian & New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 44(10), 894-900.

World Health Organization. (2018). ICD-11 for mortality and morbidity statistics (2018): WHO.

Wright, S. D. (2014). ADHD coaching matters: The definitive guide. College Station, Texas: ACO Books.

Yates, W. R., Lund, B. C., Johnson, C., Mitchell, J., & McKee, P. (2009). Attention‐deficit hyperactivity symptoms and disorder in eating disorder inpatients. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 42(4), 375-378.

Young, J. T., Bellgrove, M. A., & Arunogiri, S. (2021). Assessment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in people with substance use disorder: Another case of what gets measured gets done. Aust N Z J Psychiatry, 55(8), 744-746.

Young, S., Adamo, N., Asgeirsdottir, B. B., Branney, P., Beckett, M., Colley, W., . . . Woodhouse, E. (2020). Females with ADHD: An expert consensus statement taking a lifespan approach providing guidance for the identification and treatment of attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder in girls and women. Bmc Psychiatry, 20(1).

Young, S., Asherson, P., Lloyd, T., Absoud, M., Arif, M., Colley, W. A., . . . Skirrow, C. (2021). Failure of Healthcare Provision for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in the United Kingdom: A Consensus Statement. Front Psychiatry, 12, 649399.

Young, S., Gonzalez, R. A., Fridman, M., Hodgkins, P., Kim, K., & Gudjonsson, G. H. (2018). The economic consequences of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in the Scottish prison system. Bmc Psychiatry, 18(1), 210.

Young, S., Gonzalez, R. A., Mutch, L., Mallet-Lambert, I., O’Rourke, L., Hickey, N., . . . Gudjonsson, G. H. (2016). Diagnostic accuracy of a brief screening tool for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in UK prison inmates. Psychol Med, 46(7), 1449-1458.

Young, S., González, R. A., Mutch, L., Mallet-Lambert, I., O’rourke, L., Hickey, N., . . . Gudjonsson, G. H. (2016). Diagnostic accuracy of a brief screening tool for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in UK prison inmates. Psychological medicine, 46(7), 1449.

Young, S., Moss, D., Sedgwick, O., Fridman, M., & Hodgkins, P. (2015a). A meta-analysis of the prevalence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in incarcerated populations. Psychological Medicine, 45(2), 247-258.

Young, S., Moss, D., Sedgwick, O., Fridman, M., & Hodgkins, P. (2015b). A meta-analysis of the prevalence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in incarcerated populations. Psychological medicine, 45(2), 247-258.

Young, S., Sedgwick, O., Fridman, M., Gudjonsson, G., Hodgkins, P., Lantigua, M., & Gonzalez, R. A. (2015). Co-morbid psychiatric disorders among incarcerated ADHD populations: a meta-analysis. Psychol Med, 45(12), 2499-2510.

Young, S., & Thome, J. (2011). ADHD and offenders. World J Biol Psychiatry, 12 Suppl 1, 124-128.

Young, S., Wells, J., & Gudjonsson, G. H. (2011). Predictors of offending among prisoners: the role of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and substance use. J Psychopharmacol, 25(11), 1524-1532.

Zendarski, N., Guo, S., Sciberras, E., Efron, D., Quach, J., Winter, L., . . . Coghill, D. (2022). Examining the Educational Gap for Children with ADHD and Subthreshold ADHD. J Atten Disord, 26(2), 282-295.

Zendarski, N., Sciberras, E., Mensah, F., & Hiscock, H. (2017a). Academic Achievement and Risk Factors for Adolescents with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Middle School and Early High School. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 38(6), 358-368.

Zendarski, N., Sciberras, E., Mensah, F., & Hiscock, H. (2017b). Early high school engagement in students with attention/deficit hyperactivity disorder. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 87(2), 127-145.

Zheng, X., Shen, L., Jiang, L., Shen, X., Xu, Y., Yu, G., & Wang, Y. (2020). Parent and Teacher Training Increases Medication Adherence for Primary School Children With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. Front Pediatr, 8, 486353.

Zhu, X., Sun, X., Zhang, Y., Liu, K., & Zhao, L. (2017). A randomized parallel-controlled study of curative effect and safety of atomoxetine and methylphenidate in treatment of ADHD in children. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, 10(6), 9576-9582.

Zubrick, S., Lawrence, D., Silburn, S., Blair, E., Milroy, H., Wilkes, E., . . . Ishiguchi, P. (2004). The Western Australian Aboriginal child health survey: The health of Aboriginal children and young people: Telethon Institute for Child Health Research.