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There is currently a lack of research on understanding, identifying, assessing and treating Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples1. There may also be a lack of knowledge and awareness about ADHD in some Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities.

This may result in over-diagnosis or under-diagnosis of ADHD, resulting in stigma or a lack of treatment. For Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples, mental health interconnects with numerous domains including spiritual, environment, country, community, cultural, political, social emotional and physical health2,3. Different cultures can view the symptoms of mental health conditions differently.

For example, there could be a misidentification of symptoms that are otherwise considered as culturally appropriate. Culturally appropriate and competent care must be provided. When working with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples, clinicians should consider how mental illness is framed, and how treatment (clinical and cultural) can be articulated as building on the already existing strengths, beliefs and practices held within Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander cultures.

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