Clinical practice gaps, uncertainties and need for guidance
There is a need to evaluate the effectiveness of non-pharmacological treatment options to guide Australian clinicians and people with ADHD when choosing appropriate evidence-based intervention options.
For each of the interventions discussed in this section, the nature of the intervention and outcomes that the intervention aims to address are described. The outcomes examined for each intervention focus on ADHD symptoms and other symptom measures (see Table 14 below), consistent with the NICE guideline. However, it should be noted that many non-pharmacological interventions have value beyond improving ADHD symptoms. They can improve other important areas of functioning such as quality of life, self-esteem, social, adaptive and family functioning. These outcomes were rarely examined in the included trials.
A note about terminology: Use of the term ‘should offer’ in the recommendations in this chapter reflects the principle that clinicians should discuss these interventions and present the intervention as an option for individuals or parents/carers/families to consider. It is acknowledged that not all people or parents/carers/families will decide to proceed with the offered interventions, but it is important for individuals or parents/carers/families to be aware of these options to make informed treatment choices. Avenues for future research related to non-pharmacological treatment of ADHD is noted in Chapter 8.