Sleep intervention versus waitlist/usual care
This comparison was not addressed in NICE. Two new studies (Papadopoulos et al., 2019; Sciberras, Mulraney, et al., 2020) were identified in this evidence review using data from the same RCT testing the efficacy of a brief (2–3 sessions) behavioural sleep intervention in children with ADHD, compared with usual clinical care. These studies have been described narratively here following feedback from public consultation.
Sciberras et al., 2020 examined the 12-month outcomes of this intervention relative to usual care and found benefits up to 12 months later in parent-reported child sleep difficulties, ADHD total symptoms, ADHD inattentive symptoms, ADHD hyperactivity/impulsivity symptoms, quality of life, daily functioning, total behavioural difficulties and emotional difficulties. However, there were no benefits in parent-reported child conduct difficulties, parent mental health or any teacher-reported outcomes.
Papadopoulos et al., 2019 examined the outcomes for children with co-occurring ADHD and ASD from the original trial and found some significant benefits in terms of parent-reported sleep but not in other aspects of child or parent functioning. A translational RCT by Hiscock et al., (2019) found that sleep interventions delivered by paediatricians or psychologists in their clinical practice led to improvements in child sleep but not in other domains of functioning.